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呼吸道异物3 595例临床特点分析
作者:李巍1  李培华1  许学谷1  刘稳1  张艳秋2 
单位:1. 徐州医科大学附属医院 耳鼻咽喉科, 江苏 徐州 221003;
2. 徐州市肿瘤医院 耳鼻咽喉科, 江苏 徐州 221000
关键词:呼吸道异物 临床特点 气管 支气管 
分类号:R768.4
出版年·卷·期(页码):2020·39·第五期(578-583)
摘要:

目的:总结呼吸道异物发病特征、诊断和治疗方法。方法:系统性回顾分析徐州医科大学附属医院2003年至2016年共14年收治的3 595例呼吸道异物病例,总结其发病特点,分别从不同年度发病情况、患者年龄、异物种类、异物留存时间、异物位置、手术种类、不同月份及城市和农村构成比进行分析。结果:2003—2011年呼吸道异物发病呈递增趋势,2012—2016年呼吸道异物发病呈下降趋势,2011—2012年发病率最高,为28.15%(1 012例);1~5岁和6~8岁是呼吸道异物高发年龄,发病人数分别为3 787例(88.65%)和156例(4.34%);植物性异物和动物性异物是呼吸道异物常见的种类,发病人数分别为2 560例(71.21%)和518例(14.41%);呼吸道异物留存时间多为<1周和1周~1个月,发病人数分别为2 065例(57.44%)和1 269例(35.30%);呼吸道异物位置多在气管和右主支气管,发病人数分别为2 060例(57.30%)和1 108例(30.82%);接受支气管镜手术和直接喉镜手术的人较多,分别为2 583例(71.85%)和1 009例(28.07%);1月和2月为高发时间段,分别为856例(23.81%)和715例(19.89%);城市发病217例(6.04%),低于农村的3 378例(93.96%)。结论:1~5岁为呼吸道异物高发年龄段,以植物性异物居多。加强气管、支气管异物健康知识的宣传教育,监护人认识本病及其严重性,及时救治,可减少气管、支气管异物并发症,提高治愈率。

Objective: To summarize the characteristics, diagnosis and treatment of respiratory foreign body. Methods: 3 595 cases of respiratory foreign body from the Affiliated Hospital of Xuzhou Medical University from 2003 to 2016 were reviewed and analyzed systematically. Different annual incidence, patient age, foreign body type, foreign body retention time, foreign body location, operation type, different seasons and urban and rural composition ratio were analyzed and compared. Results: The incidence of respiratory foreign body increased from 2003 to 2011, decreased from 2012 to 2016, and the highest incidence was 1 012 cases (28.15%) from 2011 to 2012. The 1-5 years old and 6-8 years old were the high incidence age of foreign bodies with 3 787 cases (88.65%) and 156 cases (4.34%), respectively. The phytopathic and animal foreign bodies werethe high foreign bodies types with 2 560 cases (71.21%) and 518 cases (14.41%), respectively. Most of the foreign bodies in the airway were retained for<1 week and 1 week to 1 month with 2 065 cases (57.44%) and 1 269 cases (35.30%), respectively. The foreign body in respiratory tract was mostly located in the trachea and the right main bronchus with 2 060 cases (57.30%) and 1 108 cases (30.82%), respectively. There were more people who underwent bronchoscopy and direct laryngoscopy with 2 583 cases (71.85%) and 1 009 cases (28.07%), respectively. January and February were frequently happened period with 856 cases (23.81%) and 715 cases (19.89%), respectively. There were 217 cases (6.04%) in urban areas, which was higher than that in rural areas with 3 378 cases (93.96%). Conclusion: 1-5 years old ishigh incidence age of respiratory tract foreign bodies, and the majority foreign body is phytopathicbodies.We should strength the health education of trachea and bronchus foreign body. The guardian should know the disease and its severity, and treat it in time, thus can reduce the complication of trachea and bronchus foreign body and raise the cure rate.

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